Note: Technically, this post qualifies as paid promotion, because I work for ActiveState. But I volunteered to write about our new Platform and put it on my personal blog because I think what we’re doing is really cool and might be of interest to the Perl community at large.
- We have an entirely new system that supports Windows and Linux (macOS coming soon), providing you binary builds of the Perl core, Perl distros, and supporting C/C++ libraries1.
- When you use our State Tool2, you can create any number of entirely self-contained virtual environments, one per project. This makes switching between projects trivial and these virtual environments are easily shared across a team or organization.
- No more ActiveState Community License3! The only licenses that apply are the original licenses for each open source package we build for you.
- You don’t need a Platform account to try this out. But you can play with our system and sign up at any time and keep all the work you’ve done so far.
- It’s usually quite fast. If we’ve already built a particular distro/language core for the given platform, we use a cached version, so many builds take a few seconds. Entirely new builds are slower, but still faster than doing it by hand locally in many cases, because we distribute work throughout a build farm.
- The core features are all free. Most features are free for public projects. We also have paid features including private projects, build engineering support, support for older platforms, indemnification, and more.
- The Platform has lots of other cool features like revisioned projects, advanced dependency resolution, and more.
What Is It?
So what is “The ActiveState Platform”? We describe it as “multi-project, cross-platform package management for Perl 5.32”. But here’s my description for Perl people. It’s like perlbrew plus Carton on steroids, except not because it gives you binaries.
It’s cross-platform and easy for organizations to use across teams.
Besides Perl, we offer Python and Tcl (with our old licensing, for now), with other languages coming in the future.
But that’s still a mouthful, so instead, let’s dig into each of the features in detail.
Note that some of what I’m describing only applies to Perl 5.32 right now. We’re in the process of moving from using a legacy build tool4 to new tooling that’s much better. This new tooling lets us do faster parallel builds, as well as providing a better base for future features.
Package Management (with Versioning)
You don’t need to figure out how to build that pain in the rear distro. Instead, we do all of the compilation and building on our side and give you the bits. This includes not just the Perl core and Perl module code (XS or pure Perl), but also C/C++ library dependencies, which are statically linked as needed5.
All of this is managed from the command line using our State Tool. The State Tool takes care of downloading your build and installing it locally. In addition, you can use it to add, remove, or change the Perl modules associated with your project, though we have a very usable web UI too.
One of the coolest features of our package management system is that it’s all versioned. Every change to your requirements creates a new “commit” in our system. This works a lot like any VCS. You can see your commit history, revert to an earlier state, etc. And we have work in progress to support branches, to be released in the future.
The set of packages associated with each commit is frozen in time, down to the binary level. I have more details about that later in this post.
Cross Platform (OS)
We support builds on Windows and Linux, with macOS in the works. The State Tool is entirely cross-platform as well.
One thing that we’re still working on is making it possible to have a multi-OS project with per-OS package additions/removals. Right now, if you have a project that builds on both Windows and Linux, you can only add Perl distros that work on both platforms. So for example if you tried to add Win32, you’d get an error saying this can’t be built on Linux.
I think the solution to this will be via the in-progress branch support I mentioned previously. This would allow you to have a shared set of base packages, with additional Windows and Linux branches. Or you could have Linux as your main branch and Windows as a branch off that with any necessary distro additions and removals.
Multiple Projects with Shared Virtual Environments
Because all of your project’s configuration is stored in our system, it’s trivial for an entire team to share that configuration. All a new team member needs to do to get started is to
state activate the project, and they’ll get the same virtual environment as everyone else, with the same Perl core, Perl modules, and any C/C++ libraries those modules need.
This makes onboarding new team members or contributors trivial. And it makes it trivial to have many projects with different sets of requirements. And these environments can be packaged up into a file tree that you can distribute in production with the
state deploy command.
But Wait, There’s More!
The State Tool has a lot of other features including shared secret management, support for shared scripts, and the ability to execute those scripts in response to events. See its documentation for more details.
Fun Technical Bits
The team I lead here at ActiveState has worked on some of the core components of the Platform, so I want to talk about the nitty gritty a bit.
Solver and Ingredients Database
The two big things we created are the (Dependency) Solver and the Ingredients Database (and its API).
Let’s start with the database.
Our entire package database is based on timestamped revisions. When we go to resolve dependencies for a project configuration, that request is always timestamped based on the project’s most recent commit. That means the project does not see any data changes that were made after its commit.
So let’s say that a project requires
DateTime. You will always get the same version of
DateTime no matter how many times we solve for your dependencies. But you also get the same version of each of
DateTime’s dependencies, like
DateTime-TimeZone. And that applies through the entire dependency graph.
So if we add a new version of
DateTime-Locale that breaks your
DateTime version6, your project is unaffected. You can opt into newer versions explicitly, however.
This is actually even more granular than at the version level. We revision every version of every Perl core and distro that we know about7. So all of a distro’s dependency data is revisioned. This means that we can freely change that data without every breaking your build, allowing you to opt into changes on your own schedule.
The system supports a lot of static metadata that cannot be expressed in the Perl ecosystem. We can declare conflicts between distros or conflicts between a distro and a platform. But our platforms are defined very granularly, so we are really defining dependencies or conflicts in terms of platform components such as the kernel version, libc version, CPU architecture, etc.
And because we can add a new revision to an existing release, we can update this metadata as things change. Take my
DateTime-Locale example from up above. With CPAN, the only way to fix this is for me to upload a new
DateTime version that works with the new
DateTime-Locale. I have no way to tell the CPAN toolchain that every earlier version of
DateTime would work as long as it doesn’t use
DateTime-Locale past a certain version. But our system supports all sorts of version requirements, including defining minimum and maximum versions for dependencies, and even excluding arbitrary versions in a range.
Another cool feature we built is support for dependency conditions, so we can easily say that a dependency is only needed on a certain platform or with certain version of the Perl core. All of this data is stored statically, so our Solver can give you useful errors when these constraints cannot be satisfied.
I’m really proud of the design my team came up with for this. It’s as simple as it can be, and we’ve done a good job of ensuring that we apply this revisioning in a consistent way across all relevant data, because we need to revision everything that factors into dependency resolution. That includes things like platform/OS data, global and per-package options like enabling debugging or threading (coming soonish), the VM/Docker images in which we do builds, and anything else that could affect the build output.
This extreme revisioning has made it much easier for us to change and update our data without the risk of breaking existing projects8.
The Solver is based on an algorithm created by Natalie Weizenbaum while working on the library tooling for the Dart language. She developed a SAT Solver called PubGrub. Natalie has written a great introductory article on PubGrub, which I highly recommend. There is also a detailed technical specification in the pub repository.
I wrote a post about this for the ActiveState blog that goes into more detail on the specifics of our implementation and some of the ways it differs from Natalie’s design.
Try It Out
Remember, you don’t need an account to try it out. If you like it, you can always make an account and associate it with your anonymous project.
If you’re wondering how this is entirely new since I just described what ActivePerl has always been, keep reading. ↩︎
We named it the State Tool so you can run
state activateto start using it for a project. See what we did there? ↩︎
If you’re about to point out that you can’t necessarily relicense this software anyway, we know. Our license applied to the bundle, not the individual components. It is legally possible to license a software collection with a different license than applies to the individual components. ↩︎
Which is called “camel”. You’ll never guess what language it’s written in! ↩︎
XS modules are still compiled to
.sofiles, but those
.sofiles statically link to any needed C libraries. ↩︎
Surely the author of those packages would never be so sloppy as to allow this to happen, but let’s just imagine it could happen. ↩︎
Of course we do the same for all supported languages. ↩︎
For some reason users complain when their builds stop working. ↩︎